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Italian schools in the colonial period (1890-1941)
by Silvia Nocchi


Before the beginning of Italian colonialism, educational institutions were connected with religious ones such as churches and mosques, since the Eritrean population was, and still is, approximately 50% Christian and 50% Muslim. The "schools of the Koran" operated throughout the territory and the lessons took place in the mosques, while the "Coptic schools" operated on the highlands of the country and the lessons took place inside the churches. Western education in the country, however, was not initially introduced by the Italians. The French Lazarists, in fact, established educational activities in the area as early as 1840 and in 1891 they built a school for girls in Massawa which received financial support from the Italian government. The French also established an elementary school in Keren for girls and boys whose students were mostly orphans or came from poor families. But relations between the French missionaries and the Italian colonial government deteriorated in the 1890s, partly because the French did not want to teach their students Italian. The attempts by the colonial authorities, therefore, to strengthen the teaching of this subject failed miserably. Furthermore, the Italians wanted to have total control over what was taught to their colonized. Obviously it must be taken into account that the Italians, during the 'race for Africa', felt threatened by the French presence in the neighboring territory of Djibouti. Furthermore, the education offered by the French Lazarists was not compatible with the aims of the Italians, for example the teaching of the Italian language and culture to consolidate their supremacy. As a result, the Lazarists were expelled from Eritrea in 1895. After the expulsion of the French, even the Swedish missionaries in the area could be asked to leave, as they too did not teach much Italian in their schools. However, they did not represent a threat to Italian supremacy and were therefore allowed to stay. Many were the schools that opened, scattered throughout the country. The main subjects were: Tigrigna, Amharic, German and in some schools Italian, as well as history, geography and arithmetic. However, even if the Swedish evangelists enjoyed Italian protection, relations were not the best. There were two main factors: the constant friction between Protestants and Catholics and the fact that the Swedes made no effort to teach the Italian language in their schools. Furthermore, the Orthodox Church did not tolerate the presence of Protestants. True persecutions were avoided only thanks to the presence of the Italians, but the latter did not have much to gain. At the end of the century, it was evident that the colony needed adequate educational institutions, at least for the Italian residents4. The first public school established by the Italian government for the white population was opened in Asmara towards the end of the century and two teachers were brought from Italy to attend classes. Despite limited budgets, a suitable building was also built and inaugurated in 1903. In the same year, an Italian school was also opened in Keren and 25 children of both sexes were enrolled. In 1905, however, another school was opened in Adi Ugri, with 17 children. In Massawa and Segheneti, where a significant number of whites lived, the missionaries had already set up schools. The Capuchin fathers in fact replaced the French Lazarists after their expulsion. They, at this early stage, were primarily concerned with the education of the white population. Nonetheless, initiatives aimed at educating the local population were implemented. In Massawa there was a school and an orphanage (which was founded in 1888), while in Asmara a chaplain had started teaching the locals since the Italian troops had settled there in 1889. The Assab school closed due to an epidemic and because of the unbearable heat. In 1907, therefore, the schools existing in the country for Eritreans were: elementary schools in Massawa, Ghinda, Segheneti and Asmara, where there was also an asylum, as well as orphanages in Keren, Segheneti and Asmara. The subjects taught were Tigrigna, Italian, Amharic and some rudimentary knowledge of arithmetic and agriculture. Girls were taught mainly housework. We can therefore say that, in those years (from the beginning of colonialism until 1907), the Italian authorities were above all concerned about what influences the Eritreans were exposed to. Furthermore Ferdinando Martini, governor of Eritrea from 1897 to 1907, he states in his notes that he was against the introduction of Western values ​​and knowledge into Eritrean culture and the hiring of the local population into colonial administration offices or private enterprises. The education of the Eritreans was therefore assigned to missionaries and very often neglected, even if it was one of the most effective methods of spreading the language and culture of the colonizers.

1908- 1930

During this period, the Great War had no negative effects on education in the colony, apart from some budget cuts. There was, however, an increase in the number of school facilities, also due to the need for interpreters and trained staff for the colonial administration and the increasing Italian companies. In 1907 the governor Martini resigned. Eritrea was now a consolidated colony and there were few political changes until 1930, when fascism took control of the territory. This period was characterized by a continuous growth of infrastructures, as well as school structures.Salvago-Raggi took the place of Martini as governor, and unlike the latter, he was in favor of the insertion of Eritreans, as assistants or employees, within the administration and public services, such as the railway, the post office or the telegraph. Salvago-Raggi also instituted a public education program for the local population, to train the personnel assigned to these works. Furthermore, the leaders of the Muslim population had already expressed their interest in giving their children a Western education. For this reason, a bilingual school was opened in Massawa in 1908, which included three teachers: one Italian, one Arabic and a local assistant. The subjects taught, besides Arabic and Italian, were also geography and arithmetic. This school operated from October to June and had two academic years. In 1908, 35 children were enrolled, while in 1913 the number rose to 60. The main purpose behind this bilingual school was to train the children of mercenaries to facilitate, in the future, commercial exchanges and give the opportunity to those who wanted to find work in the Italian administration as an interpreter or employee. Finally, a third academic year was added. The school, however, remained exclusively reserved for the children of Muslims until, in 1930, it was then entrusted to the Capuchin fathers. It is Keren's school of arts and crafts, however, that is considered the first to be established by the Italian government. It too was intended for the children of Muslims, but children of other religions were also admitted. It opened in 1909 and was called "Salvago Raggi" in honor of the founder. The purposes of the school were: trade and give the opportunity to those wishing to find work in the Italian administration as an interpreter or employee. Finally, a third academic year was added. The school, however, remained exclusively reserved for the children of Muslims until, in 1930, it was then entrusted to the Capuchin fathers. It is Keren's school of arts and crafts, however, that is considered the first to be established by the Italian government. It too was intended for the children of Muslims, but children of other religions were also admitted. It opened in 1909 and was called "Salvago Raggi" in honor of the founder. The purposes of the school were: trade and give the opportunity to those wishing to find work in the Italian administration as an interpreter or employee. Finally, a third academic year was added. The school, however, remained exclusively reserved for the children of Muslims until, in 1930, it was then entrusted to the Capuchin fathers. It is Keren's school of arts and crafts, however, that is considered the first to be established by the Italian government. It too was intended for the children of Muslims, but children of other religions were also admitted. It opened in 1909 and was called "Salvago Raggi" in honor of the founder. The purposes of the school were: it remained exclusively reserved for the children of Muslims until, in 1930, it was then entrusted to the Capuchin fathers. It is Keren's school of arts and crafts, however, that is considered the first to be established by the Italian government. It too was intended for the children of Muslims, but children of other religions were also admitted. It opened in 1909 and was called "Salvago Raggi" in honor of the founder. The purposes of the school were: it remained exclusively reserved for the children of Muslims until, in 1930, it was then entrusted to the Capuchin fathers. It is Keren's school of arts and crafts, however, that is considered the first to be established by the Italian government. It too was intended for the children of Muslims, but children of other religions were also admitted. It opened in 1909 and was called "Salvago Raggi" in honor of the founder. The purposes of the school were:

The academic years were three and included the elementary teaching of Italian, arithmetic, geography, geometry, agriculture, Arabic and the study of the Koran. In addition, the professions taught were: typing, use of the telegraph, carpentry and basic knowledge of the farrier. In addition, the children followed military and physical training. The teachers, apart from that of Arabic, were all Italians. The results that were obtained from the establishment of these schools were very positive, to the point that two more were built. Furthermore, to provide education for Orthodox Christians, as was done for Muslims, the “San Giorgio” school of arts and crafts was opened in 1914 in Adi Ugri. This was also a college that reserved places for the sons of chiefs. The course of study lasted four years and included the teaching of subjects such as Italian, Arabic, Amharic and Tigrigna; in addition to the practical teaching of typing, carpentry and use of the telegraph, courses also accessible to children who are not children of the local nobility. In addition, physical and military training was mandatory for all students at the school. Also in 1914 the construction of the "San Michele" school of arts and crafts was completed and lessons began. This school was intended for the Catholic population of the Akele-Guzai region. The children of Catholic leaders and mestizos not recognized by the Italian parent from all over the colony were given the opportunity to stay in the boarding school. However, children from the region belonging to any religion were admitted. The subjects taught were Tigrigna, Italian, arithmetic, history and geography. The arts and crafts courses included mechanics, typing, saddlery, shoe making, carpentry and clothing making. As in all other schools, physical and military training was mandatory. The teachers were the missionaries of the Capuchin fathers, both Italian and Eritrean. Although the administration of "San Michele" was entrusted to the Capuchins, the school was under the supervision of the government and had to respect the official programs in force to take advantage of financial support. The first years of this period therefore saw a flourishing growth of school facilities for the local population. Except for the Catholic Eritreans, who also admitted orphans, these schools were initially intended for the children of the local nobility, but they were restrictions that did not last long. As you can see these schools were of "arts and crafts". This implied that attention would be focused on practical and manual teaching, limiting theoretical subjects to the indispensable minimum. The opening of these schools undoubtedly shows us a growing interest in the education of the local population. The question of education policies was also widely discussed by the then foreign minister Antonio di San Giuliano, who visited Eritrea in 1891. He stated that the subject had to be carefully considered in order not to cause any political or moral inconvenience. It seemed necessary to him not to introduce Western ways of doing and thinking in the local population, because they wouldn't fit in with the traditional mentality. Government schools were then opened and the statutes were approved for each of them, but no official communiqué was published until 1916. The circular stated that the new generations born "under our banner" had to be educated to appreciate its benefits and admire its prestige. This could be done by offering public education to improve moral and intellectual conduct. Furthermore, the circular insisted that education was not only an obligation imposed by the colonial power as part of a "mission of civilization", but also an important means of political influence, which required precise guidelines. Since that time, the commissioners of the regions that hosted government schools had to report the state of education, discipline and hygiene conditions every month and had to check the Muslim and Orthodox schools. They were also required to intervene whenever possible to encourage and discipline. From this document we can, therefore, assume that there was a growing political awareness of the potential of public education for the local population, as there was a constant need for trained personnel and a strong desire to propagate Italianism. In 1918, the governor issued a document on the dominant statutes for schools of arts and crafts in Eritrea. It exposed the opportunities, which these schools gave, of a civil and moral education through training in the arts and crafts and the improvement of these to ensure that the students became good workers. In 1921, the governor Marquis Giovanni Cerrina Feroni issued a decree on the education of Eritreans, which stipulated that the methods of education had to be revised and modified to meet the need for trained personnel for trade, industry and administration. Schools for Eritreans were to be divided into three groups: arts and crafts schools, elementary schools and a high school. The “Salvago-Raggi” schools of Keren and “San Michele” of Segheneti did not undergo many changes, but they had to introduce the teaching of Italian, the local language and some subjects at the elementary level such as arithmetic and geometry. The courses of study could not last more than four years. Besides Massawa's "Ferdinando Martini" and Adi Ugri's "San Giorgio", the elementary schools were those of the missionaries and had to teach Italian, the local language, arithmetic, geography, geometry, calligraphy and physical and moral education, as well as some notions of agriculture. Elementary schools lasted three years. For admission to these schools, tuition was required, except for schools of arts and crafts. The establishment of a high school was still at an early stage, even if the articles of the various decrees issued at that time provided for a course of two years after the elementary school which provided for the teaching of some additional subjects. It still had to wait until 1926, when the governor Gasparini opened the “Vittorio Emanuele III” in Asmara. It was a school that included four years of primary school and two of high school. No distinctions were made regarding religious affiliation and the programs were based on those carried out in Italian elementary schools with additional courses in Arabic, Amharic and Tigrigna. The education of the local population in those years was clearly intended for the formation of a colonial workforce. Indeed, the subjects taught were all intended to teach students the skills necessary to find employment in colonial administration and businesses. In addition, education served to spread Italian values ​​and culture, not only to consolidate Italian domination,

Organization of the various school years in Italian public schools

More specifically, the subjects taught in elementary schools were divided according to the years. In fact, in the first year, students were taught Italian through simple writing and pronunciation exercises. They were also taught to write in the local language and to translate between the two languages. All the lessons were held in Italian, except for those in Tigrigna. The arithmetic lessons included learning numbers and counting. In addition, much attention was given to moral education such as obedience, correct behavior and personal hygiene. The second year included the same subjects plus others. Notions were given about nature, minerals, animals and plants, the human body, its functions and needs. As regards arithmetic, however, teach addition, subtraction and other mathematical operations. The Italian and local language lessons continued, now with a reader. In the third year students were also taught notions of law, the state and its institutions. Geometry, history and geography were also included5. (5 Geography included the study only of the Eritrean and Italian territories, while history dealt with the events in Ethiopia, Egypt and Somalia, as well as that of the arrival of the Italians in Eritrea, who were described as bearers of peace, work and civilization. In addition, the history lessons included the description of important characters and events in Italian history.) In the fourth year no further subjects were added, but only those already listed were improved, except for an elementary course in accounting. The fifth and sixth years at “Vittorio Emanuele III”, the only school that included a high school course, were intended for the improvement of knowledge. Language lessons continued, as did math and writing courses. Moral education wanted to emphasize the risks of alcohol, tobacco and money. The history lessons dealt with the various African colonial regimes, to present the European administrations as bearers of peace and civilization, when compared with the barbaric conditions in which they found themselves before. There were also courses in geography, science, and physics, relevant to Eritrea's agriculture, industry and trade. Accounting courses were intended to teach students how to manage a small office, both private and public. Finally, there was a two-year course in typing and telegraph which also included basic notions of electricity and Morse code. As regards the schools of arts and crafts, however, the lessons were divided into weekly programs: four hours of drawing, eight of Italian, arithmetic and various subjects, four of tigrigna, four of military training, physical and four of agriculture, as well as thirty-two hours of practice in the various trades. It is also important to note that the Eritrean student programs also focused on physical and military training to prepare the boys for possible enlistment as an askari in the colonial army. During the first year, the training took place without weapons, while in the second year each boy was given a musket, that they had to learn to use and maintain. In the following years of training the military disciplines were perfected. Students also had to wear a uniform consisting of white trousers and shirt and a blue belt around the waist. Both the uniform and the musket, food and lodging were provided by the school. The days in the boarding schools were very busy. From the morning at 05.30 until the curfew at 20.00 everything was planned, as well as Sundays and other holidays. The school was open all year round. Final exams were in July; and from the beginning of these until October the lessons were suspended, except for the arts and crafts workshops. Indiscipline was severely punished. The punishments had seven stages, from simple reprimand to corporal punishment, until expulsion from school. Teachers also had to respect rules of discipline: it was strictly forbidden to use abusive ways towards students, as this could have subversive effects on the authority and reputation of the school. These programs and regulations give the impression of a conscious policy regarding the education possibilities of Eritrean children. The main interests of the Italians were the spread of the language and the training of personnel. Furthermore, moral education was intended to instill in students respect for parents, teachers and authorities, which found the purpose of creating a generation of good workers who are reliable and loyal to the colony.

Other educational institutions

However, there were educational institutions of other origins. For example, the school run by Father Bonomi in Asmara. This school was founded by himself in 1890, when he arrived in Eritrea. When the first Italian children arrived, he tried to create mixed classes with local students, but his project was unsuccessful, as a law prohibited any co-education. He therefore had to teach Italian students in separate classes with different programs, according to government regulations. Father Bonomi's school became well known among the inhabitants of Asmara. The teaching was divided into four courses: the first was a preparatory course, which the children would attend until they had sufficient knowledge of Italian and sufficient reading and writing skills. The other three courses included the usual elementary subjects. Already in 1905 the school had 150 students, of which 20 Italians and 40 of other nationalities. In 1913 the number rose to 270 and in 1927, when Father Bonomi died, the school had more than 300 students. There was no one to continue Bonomi's work, but some of his students were admitted to the newly opened “Vittorio Emanuele III”. However, most of the school work was carried out by the various missionary bodies. The Swedes still operated infrastructure for the local population. The Capuchin fathers took care of most of the Catholic activities, and in 1911 they brought the printer that was located in Keren to Asmara and started printing school texts for the local population. Furthermore, in the villages where a Catholic priest was stationed, some elementary courses were foreseen. The priests of these villages were of local origin and the education they provided was essentially religious, but they also taught to read and write in Tigrigna and, if the priest knew it, also some notion of Italian. It is also necessary to remember that the government also provided rudimentary teaching to the ascari enlisted in the colonial army. Despite the great commitment on the part of missionary associations regarding schools and education, the lay authorities were not always happy with their presence and influence. The colonial congress that was held in Asmara in 1905 however agreed to maintain collaboration with the missionaries, but clashes continued between lay institutions and those of missionaries. In 1918, the commissioner of Asmara complained about the lack of regulations in the school activities run by the missionaries and insisted that the colonial government should make these schools respect the school regulations. However, regulations regarding educational institutions run by private religious bodies were not established until 1928, when it was declared that all schools and school programs had to be approved by the colonial government. This decree provided for lessons in Italian six times a week, all instructions had to be given in Italian and under no circumstances was another foreign language accepted as the language of instruction. If these rules were not respected, the school would be closed. In any case, the relations between the missionaries, especially the Catholics, and the secular authorities were not hostile. In fact, many of the schools were run by missionaries, while still being controlled by the colonial government. Indeed, one might think that, due to low budgets, the colonial authorities were happy to leave it to missionaries to provide education, always under government supervision. Many attempts to implement school policies that regulate the education of the local population were made during this period, even if implemented after the actual opening of the schools. However, it can be assumed that the primary purpose behind Eritrean education was not to raise their intellectual level, but to train an 'economic' workforce for the colony's growing businesses. The "San Michele", in fact, it was described as a school with the aim of training Eritrean workers of the Catholic religion. Students were also hired even before finishing their studies. Furthermore, military training had a specific purpose: to prepare young people for future enlistment in the colonial army. Despite this, it should be noted that the colonial authorities strove to create educational institutions that respected various ethnic or religious groups, building schools for each of them.


During the 1930s, imperialist policies were strengthened and consolidated. This brought about the entry of fascism into colonial affairs. It was therefore a turbulent decade for the Italian African territories, mainly due to the invasion of Ethiopia, military actions and the regime of terror implemented by fascism. Fascism had repercussions on the school policies of the colony and on the Eritrean population, also due to the movement's racial theories that had direct effects on the local population. It should be remembered that the composition of the population in Eritrea has undergone considerable changes from the early years of the twentieth century to the present day. In fact, in 1910 against an Eritrean population of 390,000 individuals there were 1000 Italians, in 1935, 610.00 were Eritreans and 3100 Italians, in 1939 there were 740,000 Eritreans and there was a notable increase in the Italian population which reached the figure of 76,000. Then in 1946 the Eritreans 870.00 and the Italians 38.000, while today in the face of an Eritrean population of about 4.500.000 inhabitants there are 800 Italians. These data make us understand how, especially in the thirties, it became absolutely necessary to strengthen the dedicated school structures especially to the Italians. In this perspective, we find elementary and middle schools in almost all the main cities of the country (Keren, Massawa, Segheneti, Decamerè) while in the capital Asmara there were also numerous high schools, such as the classical high school, the scientific high school, the commercial institute and the renowned institute for surveyors "Bottego" which, every year, he graduated from young people who were highly regarded and professionally qualified throughout the Horn of Africa and beyond. These prestigious schools were reserved only for Italians. The buildings of most of these schools can still be admired, such as the primary school of Keren and that of Massawa.

Some information on Fascism

The term fascism derives from fascism, which in ancient Rome was, tied together with an ax, the symbol of authority. The fasces, before the Great War, were organized political groups. The word fascism, however, did not come into use until 1919 with the advent of Mussolini. The origins of fascism stem from a reaction against the scientific, economic, political and philosophical ideas of 19th century Europe. The revolutions that took place in Europe and the political views of thinkers such as Karl Marx developed antagonistic attitudes towards established institutions. The traditionalists saw in this the way to perdition and the need to reaffirm the values ​​of authority and discipline. Another factor was the rise of modern nationalism, which in its most aggressive form, he considered it a right to subdue those who were considered to be of an inferior race of humanity. Thus, it morally justified the imperialist actions and policies for the search for raw materials for industrialized Europe. Fascism took power in Italy in 1922, when Mussolini embarked on the "March on Rome". Unlike Nazism, anti-Semitism was not an essential issue for fascist ideology until the introduction of racial laws in 1938. Racial policies were, initially, based on the growing problem concerning relations between Italian men and indigenous women. in the Italian colonial territories. A 1937 decree prohibited any relationship of a conjugal nature between Italians and indigenous people. But these restrictions were based solely on cultural criteria. The decree, in fact,

Education in the years of Fascism

In 1931 a new regulation came out which concerned schools for Eritreans. The “Vittorio Emanuele III” schools of Asmara, “Ferdinando Martini” of Massawa, “Giuseppe Sapeto” of Assab and “San Michele of Segheneti were confirmed as elementary schools. The "Salvago-Raggi" of Keren continued to be a school of arts and crafts, while the "San Giorgio" of Adi Ugri became a school of agriculture, as the courses of arts and crafts had been discontinued due to lack of staff. Furthermore, there ceased to be preferences regarding the religious affiliation of students. The duration of the course of study in elementary schools was set at four years, while in professional schools three years were divided between theoretical elementary subjects and practical laboratories. The fourth and fifth years at "Vittorio Emanuele III" served as a sort of middle school for Eritreans and were the only courses, after elementary school, offered to the local population. According to the decree, a diploma from this school was required for Eritreans to be hired as typists, interpreters or clerks. Diplomas were never requested, however, due to the lack of trained personnel for companies. As for private schools, according to the decree, they needed supervision and control, as already underlined in 1928. However, one point was added: the 1928 decree allowed teaching in various local languages. This was allowed only to the Qur'anic and Christian Orthodox schools. All other private schools, mostly run by religious organizations, they were obliged not only to teach Italian, but to use it as the language of instruction. Another problem was the age of the students of the arts and crafts schools. In order to be admitted, the boys had to be between six and ten years old, but they were too young to be able to teach them manual jobs, as their bodies were still growing and developing. It was therefore suggested that we wait until the third year for practical and manual teaching. Furthermore, when evaluating the curricula of the various subjects taught in elementary schools, it was noted that many of the things taught were useless to local students. Such as the Italian Risorgimento, probably due to the struggle for unity and freedom that characterized that period of history. It was therefore emphasized that Eritreans should never have received the same education that the European population received. They had to be taught practical subjects that would really serve them, such as reading, writing and some basic notions of mathematics. The arts and crafts were to be taught to him only if it was in the interest of the colonial economy. The idea was therefore to teach Eritreans strictly manual subjects. However, no major changes were made to previous school policies. The single most important restriction was to impose Italian as the only language of instruction, except in traditional schools. This orientation was also inspired by the consideration that Eritreans should be given an education that would enable them to carry out functional tasks to the Italian colonization, carefully avoiding to ensure that the education received would have the effect of creating intellectual elites that could be dangerous for the regime. In 1932 a central office was opened for the supervision of all schools in the colony, both public and private, for both Eritreans and Europeans. Andrea Festa was appointed director. His job was to make sure that education conformed to the principles of the fascist regime. At the beginning of her work, Festa faced two problems that needed special attention: the education of Eritreans and the establishment of schools for Eritrean girls. Already in 1933 he had made changes to the regulations approved in 1931. Middle school, for example, was abolished, because, according to Festa, the name was too pretentious and "caused too many misunderstandings among the natives whose aspirations many times exceeded their status" . It was then transformed into a complementary school, which offered a program to complement and integrate the basic knowledge acquired during elementary school. Festa also often focused on the issue of hygiene. He felt it was important for children to learn and feel the need to wash. This was particularly important when raising girls who would become the wives of educated Eritreans and the rulers of European families. Schools for girls were an idea promoted by Andrea Festa himself, but they were not realized until 1937. They were intended for girls between 6 and 12 years old and the education was always of elementary level which included the teaching of Italian and various domestic tasks, such as sewing. The subjects, therefore, that Festa considered most important for the education of Eritreans, were Italian, geography, the history of Italy, as well as personal hygiene. He took care to totally abolish the teaching of subjects such as the Risorgimento and other subjects, considered useless and inadequate for the “modest” abilities of the Eritreans, or politically imprudent. Moreover, Festa's attitude was essentially fascist, not only because he wanted to reduce educational programs for Eritreans to a minimum, but also for his way of describing their potential and their possibilities. He referred to them as 'primitives' or 'of a lower race' than Europeans. In short, Festa saw schools for Eritreans as a sort of 'civil penetration', a civilization mission that every colonial power would have to undertake. Children were, of course, directly affected, as they were more easily influenced by Italian culture and would in turn influence their parents and family members. The only adults to receive an education were the askari who were part of the colonial army. In 1934 the new regulations were approved, resulting in four years of elementary school, plus additional courses in ari and professions. The two complementary years to the "Vittorio Emanuele III" were reserved for students who had distinguished themselves. The initial idea was that the students of this school would be the only ones who could be hired as teachers, interpreters or employees. However, statistics show low attendance at this school. It was not, however, because of the Eritreans, too ignorant to gain admission; but because of the Italians, reluctant to have local students seek further education. Another reason was the fact that the colonial administration urgently needed staff to worry about considering the educational level of the employees. In 1936, shortly after the proclamation of sovereignty of Italy in Ethiopia, new regulations concerning the school system were approved. They stated that the procedures applied in Eritrea over the past five years should also be applied in Ethiopia. The documents also state that due to the many ethnic groups and the many religions, it would have been impossible to form a united policy. The subjects taught and the languages ​​used would therefore have differentiated accordingly. In 1937, schools for girls were also opened and in 1941 there were about 25 public elementary schools in Eritrea. Military training was also intensified during the fascist period. An organization for young Eritrean militants was established. it would have been impossible to form a unitary policy. The subjects taught and the languages ​​used would therefore have differentiated accordingly. In 1937, schools for girls were also opened and in 1941 there were about 25 public elementary schools in Eritrea. Military training was also intensified during the fascist period. An organization for young Eritrean militants was established. it would have been impossible to form a unitary policy. The subjects taught and the languages ​​used would therefore have differentiated accordingly. In 1937, schools for girls were also opened and in 1941 there were about 25 public elementary schools in Eritrea. Military training was also intensified during the fascist period. An organization for young Eritrean militants was established.


Conclusions At the conclusion of this paragraph and on the basis of what has been explained to you, I believe that some conclusive considerations and reflections are appropriate. First of all, it must be kept in mind that the Italian colonial enterprise in Eritrea, like all colonial enterprises of European countries in Africa and beyond, was an act of violence and prevarication unfortunately characterized by numerous episodes in which local populations were victims of horrible acts, discrimination and injustice. One entered as masters in the house of others by imposing one's own authority and civilization, taking possession of what did not belong to us by force and which was used for one's own exclusive benefit. If in this process, of course, military strength was the preponderant one, we must also underline the importance of educational institutions as an instrument aimed at subjugating a people and their total control. Given these premises, it is extremely difficult to see positive aspects in the management of education by Italians in Eritrea, because it too was used as if it were a weapon, even if many decades after the end of Italian colonialism in Eritrea, it is possible to affirm that our schools have had, and still have, a role that in some respects can be positively evaluated. In other words, it could be said that the young Eritrean state, as it is now in a position to use and exploit what the Italian settlers have left (public and private buildings, communication routes, production facilities, etc. ) also the Italian school is today a precious resource for the country. This can be considered a partial compensation of the wrongs and abuses that for decades the Eritrean populations have suffered from the Italians.
to help young Eritrean professionals who currently resides in the West to learn from the experience of RICE and the aspiration to establish an independent research centre to coordinate and promote various researches in the fields of humanities, social science and applied science for the benefit of future generations and Eritrea society.



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